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THE JAVA COLLECTIONS FRAMEWORK
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Figure 4.1 The inheritance hierarchy for the Java Collections Framework
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and LinkedHashMap classes use a hybrid linked array structure. The specialized EnumSet and EnumMap classes use a bit string. These twelve implementations are summarized in Table 4.1.
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HashSet TreeSet LinkedHashSet EnumSet
HashMap TreeMap LinkedHashMap EnumMap
Table 4.1 Data structures used by the concrete classes in the JCF
The java.util package includes four other container classes that were created prior to the introduction of the JCF in Java version 1.2. They are the Vector, Stack, Dictionary, and Hashtable classes. Since they are not quite consistent with the JCF, they are now regarded as legacy classes. The Vector and Stack classes have been superseded by the ArrayList class, and the Dictionary and Hashtable classes by the HashMap class. THE Collection INTERFACE The Collection interface provides a basis for most of the other interfaces and classes in the JCF. It specifies 15 methods, as shown in the Javadoc page in Figure 4.2 on page 71. Some of these methods are obvious: for example, the clear(), contains(), isEmpty(), and size() methods. The equals() and hashCode() methods are inherited from the Object class and are meant to be overridden. The add() method may work differently for different implementations. For collections that prohibit duplicate elements, this method should add the specified object only if it is not already an element. For collections that allow duplicate elements, the method should add the specified
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THE JAVA COLLECTIONS FRAMEWORK
Figure 4.2 Methods specified by the java.util.Collection interface
object, possibly as a duplicate. In either case, the method should return true if and only if it changed the collection. The contract imposed by the interface requires any class that implements the add() method to throw an exception if the collection does not contain the specified object after the method has
THE JAVA COLLECTIONS FRAMEWORK
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been called. For example, if an implement prohibits null elements, then the method should throw a NullPointerException if the argument is null. Note that the add() method is specified as an optional operation. This means that a class can implement the Collection interface without providing a working version of the method. In that case, it would implement the method like this:
boolean add(E o) { throw new UnsupportedOperationException(); } The addAll() method adds all the elements that are in the specified collection. Note the
parameter specifier:
Collection< extends E> c This means that c is a collection whose elements type extends the type E.
The containsAll() method is to the addAll() method as the contains() method is to the add() method. In particular, it should return true if invoked immediately after a call to the addAll() method with the same Collection argument. The iterator() method returns an Iterator object that is bound to its implicit argument. (Iterators are outlined on page 77.) The Collection interface specifies three optional removal methods. The remove() method deletes one instance of its specified object, if it is an element. The removeAll() method deletes all the elements that are equal to elements in its specified collection. The retainAll() method deletes all the elements that are not equal to elements in its specified collection. Note that the addAll(), the retainAll(), and the removeAll() methods are equivalent to the set-theoretic union, intersection, and complement operators, respectively. These are illustrated in Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3 Union, intersection, and complement operations
The toArray() method returns an array of references to all the elements in the collection. The array returned by the no-argument version has type Object[]. The array returned by the oneargument version has the same array type as the argument. The Collection interface can be used directly as a specification for a Bag class. A bag is an unordered collection that allows duplicate elements. THE HashSet CLASS The HashSet class is probably the simplest of all the concrete classes in the JCF. Its instances represent ordinary sets of unique elements (no duplicates). In fact, a set can be defined simply as a collection of unique elements. It extends the AbstractSet class. That class implements the Set interface, which extends the Collection interface. (See Figure 4.1 on page 70.)
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