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CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
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If we assume ICBO ICEO 0, then and iC iE iB 1:602 0:016 0:99 1:602 iE iE i i iB 1:602 0:016 C E 99:125 0:016 iB iB
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Example 3.6. A BJT has 0:99; iB IB 25 A, and ICBO 200 nA. Find (a) the dc collector current, (b) the dc emitter current, and (c) the percentage error in emitter current when leakage current is neglected. (a) With 0:99, (3.2) gives Using (3.3) in (3.2) then gives IC IB 1 ICBO 99 25 10 6 99 1 200 10 9 2:495 mA (b) The dc emitter current follows from (3.1): IE (c) IC ICBO 2:495 10 3 200 10 9 2:518 mA 0:99 IC 2:475 2:5 mA 0:99 99 1
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Neglecting the leakage current, we have IC IB 99 25 10 6 2:475 mA giving an emitter-current error of 2:518 2:5 100% 0:71% 2:518 so IE
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BIAS AND DC LOAD LINES
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Supply voltages and resistors bias a transistor; that is, they establish a speci c set of dc terminal voltages and currents, thus determining a point of active-mode operation (called the quiescent point or Q point). Usually, quiescent values are unchanged by the application of an ac signal to the circuit. With the universal bias arrangement of Fig. 3-8(a), only one dc power supply VCC ) is needed to establish active-mode operation. Use of the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit to the left of a; b leads to the circuit of Fig. 3-8(b), where R1 R2 R1 RB VBB V 3:5 R1 R2 R1 R2 CC If we neglect leakage current so that IEQ 1 IBQ and assume the emitter-to-base voltage VBEQ is constant % 0:7 V and % 0:3 V for Si and Ge, respectively), then KVL around the emitter loop of Fig. 3-8(b) yields IEQ VBB R VBEQ IEQ RE 3:6 1 B which can be represented by the emitter-loop equivalent bias circuit of Fig. 3-8(c). Solving (3.6) for IEQ and noting that ICQ IEQ % ICQ we obtain VBB VBEQ ICQ % IEQ 3:7 RB = 1 RE
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CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
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+ VCC
RC 3
4 IEQ
a IBQ RB + VBB _ b IEQ RB +1 + VBB _
IEQ + _ VBEQ
R1 RE b 0 (a) (b) (c) RE RE
Fig. 3-8
If component values and the worst-case value are such that RB R % B ( RE 1 3:8
then IEQ (and thus ICQ ) is nearly constant, regardless of changes in ; the circuit then has -independent bias. From Fig. 3-3(c) it is apparent that the family of collector characteristics is described by the mathematical relationship iC f vCE ; iB with independent variable vCE and the parameter iB . We assume that the collector circuit can be biased so as to place the Q point anywhere in the active region. A typical setup is shown in Fig. 3-9(a), from which ICQ Thus, if the dc load line, iC and the speci cation iB IBQ 3:10 vCE VCC Rdc Rdc 3:9 VCEQ VCC Rdc Rdc
are combined with the relationship for the collector characteristics, the resulting system can be solved (analytically or graphically) for the collector quiescent quantities ICQ and VCEQ .
Example 3.7. For the transistor circuit of Fig. 3-8(a), R1 1 k, R2 20 k, RC 3 k, RE 10 , and VCC 15 V. If the transistor is the generic npn transistor of Example 3.3, use SPICE methods to determine the quiescent values IBQ , VBEQ , ICQ , and VCEQ . The netlist code below models the circuit.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
[CHAP. 3
ICQ IBQ + VCEQ _ RS +
RB IEQ + _ VBB
+ _ VCC
iC, mA
DC load line (Example 3.8) iB = 100 mA
ib ,
VCC = Rdc
iB = 80 mA
ic , mA
iB = 60 mA
8 2.25
a Q-point
6 2p 0
iB = 40 mA DC load line (Problem 3.8) b iB = 20 mA iB = 10 mA iB = 0
_ 2.25 2
_ 20
VCEQ
_ 2.37 0 2.37
Lce , V
LCE, V
t (b)
Fig. 3-9
CHAP. 3]
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
EX3_7.CIR - CE quiescent values R1 0 1 1kohm R2 2 1 20kohm RC 2 3 3kohm RE 4 0 10ohm VCC 2 0 15V Q 3 1 4 QNPNG .MODEL QNPNG NPN(Is=10fA Ikf=150mA Isc=10fA Bf=150 + Br=3 Rb=1ohm Rc=1ohm Va=30V Cjc=10pF Cje=15pF) .DC VCC 15V 15V 1V .PRINT DC IB(Q) IC(Q) V(1,4) V(3,4) .END
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