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EXAMPLE 8.6
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Using Default Parameter Values in the Rational Class Constructor
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class Rational { public: Rational(int n=O, int d=l) : num(n), den(d) { } private: int num, den; 1; main0 { Rational x, y(4), z(22,7);
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Here, x will represent O/l, y will represent 4/l, and z will represent 22/7. Recall that the default values are used when actual parameters are not passed. So in the declaration of the Rat ional object x where no values are passed, the formal parameter n is given the default value 0 which is then assigned to x . num, and the formal parameter d is given the default value 1 which is then assigned to x . den. In the declaration of the object y where only the value 4 is passed, the formal parameter n is given that value 4 which is then assigned to y . num, and the formal parameter d is given the default value 1 which is then assigned to y . den. No default values are used in the declaration of z.
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8.5 ACCESS FUNCTIONS Although a class s member data are usually declared to be private to limit access to them, it is also common to include pub1 ic member functions that provide read-only access to the data. Such functions are called accessfunctions.
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EXAMPLE 8.7 Access Functions in the Rational Class
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class Rational { public: Rational(int n=O, int d=l) : num(n), den(d) { } int numerator0 const { return num; } int denominator0 const { return den; } private: int num, den; 1; main0 { Rational x(22,7); tout << x.numerator() -c-c
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c-c x.denominator() << endl;
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The functions numerator ( ) and denominator ( > return the values of the private member data.
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Note the use of the COW t keyword in the declarations of the two access functions. This allows the functions to be applied to constant objects. (See Section 8.9.)
8.6 PRIVATE MEMBER FUNCTIONS Class member data are usually declared to be private and member functions are usually declared to be pub1 i c. But this dichotomy is not required. In some cases, it is useful to declare one or more member functions to be private. As such, these functions can only be used within the class itself; i.e., they are local utility functions.
EXAMPLE 8.8 Using private Member Functions gcd ( ) and r e d u c e ( )
class Rational { public: Rational(int n=O, int d=l) : num(n), den(d) { reduce(); } void print0 { tout CC num CC '/' << den C-C endl; } private: int num, den; gcd(k,j%k); int gcd(int j, int k) { if (k==O) return j; return void reduce0 { int g = gcd (num, den); num /= g; den /= g; }
main0 Rational ~(100,360); x.print();
This version includes two private functions. The gcd ( ) function returns the greatest common divisor of the two integers passed to it. The reduce ( ) function uses the gcd ( ) to reduce the fraction num/den to lowest terms. Thus the fraction 100/360 is stored as the object 5/18. Instead of having a separate reduce ( ) function, we could have done the actual reduction within the constructor. But there are two good reasons for doing it this way. Combining the construction with the reduction would violate the software principle that separate tasks should be handled by separate functions. Moreover, the reduce ( ) function will be needed later to reduce the results of arithmetic operations performed on Rational objects.
Note that the keywords pub1 ic and private are called access specifiers; they specify whether the members are accessible outside the class definition. The keyword protected is the third access specifier. It will be described in 11.
8.7 THE COPY CONSTRUCTOR
Every class has at least two constructors. These are identified by their unique declarations:
X(const X&); // default constructor // copy constructor
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where x is the class identifier. For example, these two special constructors for a Widget class would be declared: