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OVERLOADING OPERATORS
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return ostr << r.num << '/' << r.den; which inserts 22/7 into the output stream and returns a reference to cout. Then another call to the standard output operator << and another call to the overloaded operator are made, with the output (a reference to cout) of each call cascading into the next call as input. Finally, the last call to the standard output operator << is made, passing cout and endl. This flushes the stream, causing the complete line x = 22/7, y = -3/8 to be printed.
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The syntax for overloading the input operator for a class T with data member d is
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friend istream& operator>>(istream& istr, T& t) { return istr >> t.d; }
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Here, istream is another standard class defined (indirectly) in the iostream.h header file. Here is an example of how custom input can be written: EXAMPLE 11.9 Overloading the Input Operator >> in the Ratio Class
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class Ratio { friend istream& operator>>(istream&, Ratio&); friend ostream& operator<<(ostream&, const Ratio&); public: Ratio(int n=0, int d=1) : num(n), den(d) { } // other declarations go here private: int num, den; int gcd(int, int); void reduce(); }; int main() { Ratio x, y; cin >> x >> y; cout << "x = " << x << ", y = " << y << endl; } istream& operator>>(istream& istr, Ratio& r) { cout << "\t Numerator: "; istr >> r.num; cout << "\tDenominator: "; istr >> r.den; r.reduce(); return istr; } Numerator: -10 Denominator: -24 Numerator: 36 Denominator: -20 x = 5/12, y = -9/5
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This version of the input operator includes user prompts to facilitate input. It also includes a call to the utility function reduce(). Note that, as a friend, the operator can access this private function.
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OVERLOADING OPERATORS
11.8 CONVERSION OPERATORS In our original implementation of the Ratio class (Example 10.1 on page 233) we defined the member function convert() to convert from type Ratio to type double:
double convert() { return double(num)/den; }
This requires the member function to be called as
x.convert();
In keeping with our goal to make objects of the Ratio class behave like objects of fundamental types (i.e., like ordinary variables), we would like to have a conversion function that could be called with a syntax that conforms to ordinary type conversions:
n = int(t); y = double(x);
This can be done with a conversion operator. Our Ratio class already has the facility to convert an object from int to Ratio:
Ratio x(22);
This is handled by the default constructor, which assigns 22 to x.num and 1 to x.den. This constructor also handles direct type conversions from type int to type Ratio:
x = Ratio(22);
Constructors of a given class are used to convert from another type to that class type. To convert from the given class type to another type requires a different kind of member function. It is called a conversion operator, and it has a different syntax. If type is the type to which the object is to be converted, then the conversion operator is declared as
operator type();
For example, a member function of the Ratio class that returns an equivalent float would be declared as
operator float();
Or, if we want it to convert to type double, then we would declare it as
operator double();
And, if we want it to be usable for constant Ratios (like pi), then we would declare it as
operator double() const;
Recall that, in our original implementation of the Ratio class (Example 10.1 on page 233) we defined the member function convert() for this purpose. EXAMPLE 11.10 Adding a Conversion Operator to the Ratio Class
class Ratio { friend istream& operator>>(istream&, Ratio&); friend ostream& operator<<(ostream&, const Ratio&); public: Ratio(int n=0, int d=1) : num(n), den(d) { } operator double() const; private: int num, den; }; int main() { Ratio x(-5,8); cout << "x = " << x << ", double(x) = " << double(x) << endl;
OVERLOADING OPERATORS
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const Ratio P(22,7); const double PI = double(P); cout << "P = " << P << ", PI = " << PI << endl; } Ratio::operator double() const { return double(num)/den; } x = -5/8, double(x) = -0.625 P = 22/7, PI = 3.14286
First we use the conversion operator double() to convert the Ratio object x into the double -0.625. Then we use it again to convert the constant Ratio object p into the constant double pi.
11.9 OVERLOADING THE INCREMENT AND DECREMENT OPERATORS The increment operator ++ and the decrement operator -- each have two forms: prefix and postfix. Each of these four forms can be overloaded. We ll examine the overloading of the increment operator here. Overloading the decrement operator works the same way. When applied to integer types, the pre-increment operator simply adds 1 to the value of the object being incremented. This is a unary operator: its single argument is the object being incremented. The syntax for overloading it for a class named T is simply
T operator++(); So for our Ratio class, it is declared as Ratio operator++();
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