# 2d barcode generator vb.net A Leap Year Function in Software Making UPC - 13 in Software A Leap Year Function

EXAMPLE 5.14 A Leap Year Function
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A leap year is a year in which one extra day (February 29) is added to the regular calendar. Most of us know that the leap years are the years that are divisible by 4. For example, 1992 and 1996 are leap years. Most people, however, do not know that there is an exception to this rule: centennial years are not leap years. For example, 1800 and 1900 are not leap years. Furthermore, there is an exception to the exception: centennial years which are divisible by 400 are leap years. Thus, the year 2000 is a leap year. Here is a boolean function that implements this definition: bool isLeapYear(int y) { // returns true iff y is a leap year: return y % 4 == 0 && y % 100 != 0 || y % 400 == 0; } The compound condition y % 4 == 0 && y % 100 != 0 || y % 400 == 0 will be true precisely when y is divisible by 4 but not by 100 unless it is also divisible by 400. In these cases the function returns true; in all other cases it returns false. Here is a test driver and test run for the function: bool isLeapYear(int); // returns true iff y is a leap year;
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int main() { // tests the isLeapYear() function: int n; do { cin >> n; if (isLeapYear(n)) cout << n << " is a leap year.\n"; else cout << n << " is not a leap year.\n"; } while (n > 1); } The output is 2000 2000 is a leap year. 2001 2001 is not a leap year. 0 0 is a leap year.
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5.9 I/O FUNCTIONS Functions are particularly useful for encapsulating tasks that require messy details that are not very relevant to the primary task of the program. For example, in processing personnel records, you might have a program that requires interactive input of a user s age. By relegating this task to a separate function, you can encapsulate the details needed to ensure correct data entry without distracting the main program. We have already seen examples of output functions. The only purpose of the printDate() function in Example 5.11 on page 96 was to print the date represented by its input parameters. Instead of sending information back to the calling function, it sends its information to the standard output (i.e., the computer screen). An input function like the one described above is analogous. Instead of receiving its information through its parameters, it reads it from standard input (i.e., the keyboard). The next example illustrates an input function. The while (true) control of the loop in this example makes it look like an infinite loop: the condition (true) is always true. But the loop is actually controlled by the return statement which not only terminates the loop but also terminates the function. EXAMPLE 5.15 A Function for Reading the User s Age
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Here is a simple function that prompts the user for his/her age and then returns it. It is robust in the sense that it rejects any unreasonable integer input. It repeatedly requests input until it receives an integer in the range 0 to 120: int age() { // prompts the user to input his/her age, and returns that value: int n; while (true) { cout << "How old are you: "; cin >> n; if (n < 0) cout << "\a\tYour age could not be negative."; else if (n > 120) cout << "\a\tYou could not be over 120."; else return n; cout << "\n\tTry again.\n"; } } As soon as the input received from cin is acceptable, the function terminates with a return statement, sending the input back to the calling function. If the input is not acceptable (either n < 0 or n > 120), then the system beep is sounded by printing the character '\a' and a comment printed. Then the user is asked to Try again. Note that this is an example of a function whose return statement is not at the end of the function. Here is a test driver and output from a sample run: int age(); // prompts the user to input his/her age, and returns that value;
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int main() { // tests the age() function: int a = age(); cout << "\nYou are " << a << " years old.\n"; }
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