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The wireless network is much different than wireline for a number of reasons. In a wireline network, operators are confident that subscribers are who they say they are, because they are attached to the other end of a dedicated cable. In wireless networks,
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the subscriber accesses the network from any location using a radio device (cellular telephone or other wireless device). This means that wireless networks must implement other means for authenticating a subscriber, and verifying they are authorized to use the services they are attempting to access. This means using various databases that the network switches can access for these functions. The wireline network also uses databases, as well as the SS7 protocol to communicate with those databases, but they are not as critical there as they are in wireless networks. Without the IN, roaming is not possible, and wireless service would be very basic. Figure 1-2 shows a typical GSM network with 2G as well as 3G packet access. The mobile switching center (MSC) provides the connectivity to the various radio sites, acting as a hub in the network. The MSC must access the various databases prior to providing a subscriber services to verify the subscriber is who they say they are (authentication) and to identify the services they are authorized to access.
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VLR MSC HLR Figure 1-2 GSM wireless network architecture
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Architecture of a SIP Network
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The MSC also provides connectivity back into the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). This is how fixed-line calls are routed to wireless devices. The MSC also provides connectivity to the home location register (HLR) and the visitor location register (VLR). These two entities provide the functions of the SIP registrar (authentication and authorization). The HLR provides information about subscribers in their home networks. This information includes their public identities, and the services they are authorized to access. The HLR provides another important function: the location of the subscriber. The location is identified by first providing the address of the serving MSC. The serving MSC is where the mobile device last registered. The serving MSC address is used to route calls through the network to the device in its current location. The actual cell site serving the mobile device is identified in the VLR. The serving MSC queries its VLR to determine which cell site to route the call through to reach the subscriber. This concept of mobility works relatively the same as in a SIP network. The SIP network also uses a registrar for registering a subscriber location. It can also provide the authentication and authorization services provided in the wireless network. The wireless network shown in Figure 1-2 is a simplified illustration meant to provide a basic idea of wireless network architecture. Real networks are, of course, a bit more complex than shown, but this drawing identifies the major components of the network.
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Network Elements in a Voice over IP Network
There is one major difference between circuit switching and packet switching; circuits are not dedicated per call as in packet switching. Yes, there are still circuits connecting between each of the involved network entities, but these circuits make up a backbone, if you will, designed to transport millions of calls and data packets all together, rather than selecting a circuit, and reserving that circuit just for one call. In packet networks, there are still circuits connecting to routers (a router is equivalent to a switch, if you will, in terms of its function). The routers provide the connectivity throughout the network. The circuits themselves are always transporting packets, unlike switched networks, where the trunks or lines sit idle between calls. The packet network is designed to use any available route to deliver all the data and voice packets in the network to their destinations. This represents a fundamental change in how we route through a network, but it also presents a challenge. Since there are other packets using the same circuits, if the circuits should become congested, packets begin slowing down or are dropped entirely. This has a negative impact on QoS in voice networks, as delay and jitter are not tolerable. The routers are controlled at the transport layer. Connecting the packet network and providing session control end to end are the equivalent to the call control function within the switch. As you may recall, in the section Wireline Network Architecture we discussed the three major functions of a switch. You will also recall that the call control function was the most expensive part of the switch and the main reason it is so expensive to deploy switches in smaller rural markets.
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