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SIP uses clear text messages, meaning anyone with a computer and some programming knowledge can tap into a network and capture SIP messages. This is different from bit-oriented protocols that simply transport frames of bits that when grouped into a
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defined format can be decoded to specific messages and parameters. ISDN and SS7 are good examples of bit-oriented protocols. Since SIP uses clear text, if a hacker can capture these messages, that hacker is able to read subscribers sensitive information such as their public and private identities. This information can then be used to spoof a subscriber. In other words, the hacker can use this information to gain access into the operator s network for his or her own use. Let s say a subscriber has registered with the network, and the subscriber s location is recorded by the registrar. All calls and e-mails, instant messages, and any other session traffic are sent to this location. The hacker then accesses the same network and uses the same subscriber information captured when sniffing or tapping the network to register with the network. Since the hacker is using the identity of the legitimate subscriber, her or she is granted access. However, the registration from the legitimate subscriber is not changed. To the network it appears as if the subscriber has changed locations in the network and sent a new registration. The hacker has changed this through his or her own registration with a new location that now gets stored in the registrar. This means that all session traffic for the legitimate subscriber will now be sent to the hacker s destination instead of the subscriber s device. Now eventually the subscriber will change the registration again while changing locations (provided the subscriber is mobile), but the hacker already has the subscriber s identities and network permissions and is therefore able to use this information to gain network access anytime he or she wishes. Another means of accomplishing registration hijacking is to capture a subscriber s registration message and then replay the same message using a new location. This effectively registers the subscriber with the hacker s location. This is one of the more common means for hijacking registrations.
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Session Hijacking
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Session hijacking works much like registration hijacking, but this attack is used differently. A session hijacking is used to take over a session in progress. Session hijacking began with the World Wide Web. A Web server is not a stateful server. A session consists of the UAS accessing a page from the Web server. If a subsequent page is accessed, that comprises another session (or at least new authentication from the user and the Web server). To alleviate the need of authenticating continuously when using a Web site, Web developers created the concept of cookies. A cookie is nothing more than a data file, usually consisting of the session ID. The Web server sends the browser the cookie when the site is first accessed. The cookie is then sent by the browser application each time it accesses the Web server for another page to identify itself. This concept was expanded for use with online shopping sites to maintain the shopping cart. When you visit an online site and wish to review your shopping cart,
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the cookie sends your authentication information so that you don t have to keep typing in your password. If these cookies are intercepted and copied, they allow the interceptor full access to the session already in progress. This means the hacker now has access to all of your transactions and account information (so long as the session is still in progress). A cookie can be expired when the session is over, or it can be set for longer durations. Many sites generate cookies using an algorithm that uses the timestamp and the IP address of the user to generate a unique identifier. This is an easy identifier for hackers to guess using random generators. Cookies themselves are somewhat controversial for many reasons, but mostly because they are misunderstood (many believe they are executables rather than data files). The usage of cookies is full of vulnerabilities, however, making them very susceptible to session hijacking, so their use within a SIP network is not highly recommended. This is especially true if WiFi is going to be the access method into the network. WiFi networks are still very susceptible to eavesdropping, and the use of any clear-text transmissions is risky. Cookies can easily be captured through eavesdropping on access points, which would then compromise network services. One simple check for hijacking is to check the time and date stamp of an incoming request or response. When a UAS receives a request, it should check the date and time with its own internal clock. If there is a discrepancy (more than 30 minutes, for example), then it is very likely that the request was intercepted and has been replayed with a changed destination address. This happens when a session is hijacked and the message is captured for replay. The hackers will change the origination address of a message to their own and insert the message back into the network. If they do not update the DATE header, then the message will appear as if it has been traversing the network for some time, which is not normal a session request that has been traversing the network for a long period of time (30 minutes is a long time) will most likely be deleted, as the interval specified in its MAX-FORWARDS header will have been exceeded.
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