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hapter 28 examined the Domain Name Service (DNS), which allows hosts around the Internet to be easily and consistently identified by user-friendly names rather than computer-friendly IP addresses. However, while DNS is a very common network information service, it is not the only kind of service available. Solaris 10 supports NIS+, which is an improved version of the Network Information Service (which was popular with Solaris 1). However, NIS/NIS+ will eventually be deprecated in favor of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), which is an industry standard, and may be deprecated in future Solaris releases in favor of LDAP. NIS+ is composed of a centralized repository of information about hosts, networks, services, and protocols on a local area network. This information is physically stored in a set of maps that are intended to replace the network configuration files usually stored in a server s /etc directory. The set of all maps on a NIS+ network is known as a namespace, supporting large networks of up to 10,000 hosts where responsibilities can be delegated to local servers. NIS+ improves upon the standard NIS by allowing enhancements to authentication processes, combined with sophisticated resource authorization. This allows NIS+ namespaces to exist over public networks like the Internet without risk of data loss or interception, with the caveat that NIS+ relies on the relatively weak DES encryption algorithm. This chapter examines the process of setting up a NIS+ server and highlights the differences between NIS+ and NIS, and between NIS+ and other naming services like DNS. In fact, many sites choose to run DNS alongside NIS+, which is also possible. In addition, this chapter reviews the role and configuration of primary and slave servers, and walks through the installation of NIS+ using the script method.
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The following concepts are required knowledge for installing and running NIS/NIS+.
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NIS+ is a Solaris network information service whose primary focus is the management of users, hosts, networks, services, and protocols. NIS+ does not replace DNS, which is still required for host addressing and identification. However, NIS+ namespaces can be constructed to parallel the host designations assigned through DNS, to simplify operations and to make the integration of both services more seamless. NIS+ gives networks more than just DNS: namespaces are used as centralized repositories of shared network information that can be used to more effectively manage large networks. However, many organizations choose not to use NIS+ because it has some overlap with DNS, and because of the extra administrative burden involved in installing and configuring NIS+ primary and slave servers. However, if you use the NIS+ scripts to install and configure namespaces, instead of using NIS+ commands directly, NIS+ can be much easier to configure. NIS revolves around the idea of maps: a map is generally a database with two columns, of which one is a primary key that is used to retrieve an associated value. This associative nature makes the storage and retrieval of group, mail, passwords, and Ethernet information fast for small networks, but can rapidly become difficult to manage (not to mention slow) for large networks. NIS+, in contrast, uses tables, of which 16 are defined by the system. Tables store information such as server addresses, time zones, and networks services. This section reviews the most commonly used types of NIS maps and NIS+ tables. First, however, consider this conceptual overview of how NIS+ could be used to better manage an organization s network data. Suppose that you re setting up a Solaris network for an imaginary college called Panther College, which has a DNS domain of panther.edu. Panther has two teaching divisions: an undergraduate school (undergrad .panther.edu) and a graduate school (graduate.panther.edu). The panther.edu domain has a class C network (192.12.1.0), as do each of the undergraduate (192.12.2.0) and graduate schools (192.12.3.0). Each of these networks can have up to 255 hosts, which more than adequately covers the staff members in both teaching divisions. To support DNS, there may be a campus-wide DNS server ns.panther.edu at 192.12.1.16, while the undergrad.panther .edu network has its own DNS servers at ns.undergrad.panther.edu (192.12.1.16), and ns.graduate.panther.edu (192.12.2.16). This is a fairly standard setup for a medium-sized network like a college campus, and is demonstrated in Figure 29-1.
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FIGURE 29-1
DNS configuration for a fictional college with two divisions graduate and undergraduate both of which have their own name server
29:
Network Information Service (NIS/NIS+)
FIGURE 29-2
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