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preprocess arguments. For example, if a string passed to a system call has a maximum length of 1,024 bytes, but a 1,025-byte string is passed, a kernel panic is possible if the executing user has privileges (real or effective). Solaris provides manual pages for all system calls and functions in the third group of man pages. These provide invaluable information about function and library interfaces, including the number of required parameters, return types, and other dependencies. This section walks you through the development of a simple application (a horserace winner predictor) that makes use of two system calls (rand() and srand()). The aim of the program is to randomly select a winning horse from a variable-sized field of horses although this may seem like a trivial example, it is a simple application whose development touches on the basic elements of constructing a C program. The first step in developing the application is to investigate the system calls and functions that will be used to generate the random numbers. You can start by reading the Solaris documentation, where you ll find that the rand() function is an ANSI-compliant, suitable method to use. Through the man pages, you can check the required parameters to pass to rand(), the name of the include file that defines the interface, and any information that is relevant to calling the function. For example, you can display the man page for rand() by typing this command:
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$ man 3 rand
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The man page for rand() identifies the system header file as <stdlib.h>, so all programs that use the rand() function must include the relevant include file, by specifying this header file in the C source:
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#include <stdlib.h>
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The man page for rand() specifies that the return type of the rand() function is an integer (int), and it doesn t require any parameters to be passed in order to return a randomly generated number (void). The man page also states that the rand() function returns a pseudo-random integer, lying on the interval between 0 and RAND_MAX. By convention, nonchanging numerical values such as RAND_MAX are defined as constants and cannot be modified by a program. A second important requirement for generating random numbers is also displayed on the man page: a seeding function must be called by any program before calling the rand() function. This is because random-number generation by digital computers is only pseudo-random it generates a series of potentially predictable numbers, using a linear congruential algorithm. Although it is possible to guess a random sequence if you know the seed value, the trick is to use a seed number that changes constantly retrieving the second or millisecond value from a time-of-day system call is a popular choice. The man page for rand() states that the srand function takes an unsigned integer argument, representing the seed, and does not return a value. However, if a seed is not supplied, the default value of 1 is used.
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Let s have a look at how to put all of these requirements together to form a program that uses random numbers. This example is a program that guesses a winning horse number from a field of horses in a race:
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#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int numberOfHorses, horsePicked, seed; printf("Horses 1.0\n"); printf("This program picks a winning horse \n"); if (argc != 3) { printf("usage: horses number_of_horses seed\n"); exit(1); } numberOfHorses=atoi(argv[1]); seed=atoi(argv[2]); if (numberOfHorses>24) { printf("Sorry - the maximum number of horses is 24\n"); exit(1); } else { printf("Number of horses: %i\n", numberOfHorses); } srand(seed); horsePicked=1+(int)((float)numberOfHorses*rand()/(RAND_MAX+1.0)); printf("Horse number %i shall win the race\n",horsePicked); }
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The program begins by including the header files for the standard I/O and standard C libraries. Next, we declare the main() function, which is the exclusive entry point into the program. We pass two parameters to the main() function: an integer called argc and a pointer to an array of characters called argv. These two functions are used to enumerate and pass in command-line parameters, respectively. Because we want to pass in two variables (the number_of_horses in a race and the random-number seed, seed), argc should equal 3 (the extra parameter is the name of the program, in this case horses). Next, we declare internal variables representing the number of horses (numberOfHorses), the horse selected (horsePicked), and the random-number seed (seed). After a banner is printed, the number of command-line arguments is checked. If it is not equal to 3, the application terminates. Checking the bounds of arguments prevents any nasty problems
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