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SONET and SDH Applications
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Figure 7-14 LMDS as an access technology.
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Business Region
Figure 7-15 Metro Ethernet transport.
PBX / Switch/ Router Medium Business
- Voice - Broadband Data - Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet DCS
Metro Access, Interoffice
Access Router
Voice Switch Application Servers
Core Routers
PSTN
Switch / Router
- Voice - Wideband Data (TDM, ATM, FR, PPP) -10/100 MbE
FR/ATM Edge Switch Access Router
Internet
ATM Concentrator
Broadband (ATM, TDM), Ethernet
DSLAM
ATM Core Switch
Central Office
xDSL Residential/SOHO Customers
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SONET and SDH Applications
SONET and SDH Applications
Packet and Other Data Services
Today s service provider networks designed to transport IP traffic or other data services must provide QoS that approaches that of legacy voice networks. Long ago (3 years!) we realized that the killer application for voice networks was data that is, the addition of data-based services converted voice, traditionally a flat revenue service, into a service that created significant additional revenue though Caller ID and other data add-ons. Today, we have come to realize that the killer application for data networks is voice, the result of which is a clear recognition of the importance of survivable, dependable network infrastructures. In response to this realization, service providers are merging their existing voice and data networks into a single multiservice infrastructure that matches the five nines of reliability and availability of the voice network, rather than the far less stringent standards of data networks. Five nines of reliability means that the network or component is 99.999 percent available. Equally important is the concept of protocol agnosticism. Common questions are, IP or ATM ATM or frame relay MPLS or some other QoS-aware protocol Each of these has value when deployed for specific types of services. For example, ATM provides the QoS control that is required for voice and private line services, whereas IP does not yet do so. Rather than coerce service providers to choose one protocol over another and compromise delivered service quality or to maintain multiple networks for different services, evolving data-oriented technologies enable the creation of a single protocolindependent infrastructure that can switch any protocol anywhere, anytime, with appropriate QoS for each service. The bandwidth capabilities of the optical network add greatly to this capability. Another ongoing evolutionary requirement of modern networks is a recognition of the fact that the core and the edge are becoming functionally independent in many ways yet are functionally merging in others. The current layer-2 (ATM) and layer-3 (IP) multiservice networks are divided between the core and the edge. The edge, where IP first appears and QoS is introduced, provides service delivery, while the core, with its highbandwidth fabric and QoS-aware switches, aggregates those services for transport. In reality, current service provider networks have three functional regions as shown in Figure 7-16: service creation and delivery at the edge, typically performed by smaller multiservice switches and routers; the aggregation of services within the multiservice core fabric, typically
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SONET and SDH Applications
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performed by larger ATM switches or core IP routers that aggregate traffic from the edge; and finally transport, the process of moving through the optical network while preserving QoS. Tomorrow s networks will evolve from three layers into two. Many network designers believe that one of the first evolutionary steps will be a merger between the edge and the multiservice core, characterized by devices that deliver end-user services and also provide low-speed transmission aggregation for handoff to the optical core. The benefits of such a model are numerous, including a reduction in network complexity, a simplification of management requirements, a large increase in available bandwidth, and on-demand provisioning of QoS-based customer services. The requirements for this enhancement to the existing network are not overly significant. The aggregation currently performed by large access nodes with high bit-rate DWDM facilities that interface directly to the optical core will migrate to the smaller hybrid devices that straddle the line between the core and the edge. Additionally, traffic-engineering functions must be modified to accommodate the provisioning of a selective partial mesh fabric for backbone connectivity. This evolution is most likely a 1- to 2-year process for the more aggressive second-tier carriers, longer for the first-tier companies.
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