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3 added detail to the gross-level OAM&P work performed in Phase 2. It should be noted that the standards development process was originally intended to be a two-phase process, but the effort turned out to be bigger than the proverbial breadbox. Phase 2 became Phases 2 and 3, and by early 1990, the SONET standard was for all intents and purposes finally complete. Let s now turn our attention to SDH.
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Most SONET and SDH texts cite a common list of reasons for the proliferation of SONET and SDH networks, including a recognition of the importance of the global marketplace and a desire on the part of manufacturers, to provide devices that will operate in both SONET and SDH environments; the global expansion of ring architectures; a greater focus on network management and the value that it brings to the table; and massive, unstoppable demand for more bandwidth. These were added to those reasons: an increasing demand for high-speed routing capability to work handin-glove with transport; deployment of DS-1, DS-3, and E-1 interfaces directly to the enterprise customer as access solutions; growth in demand for broadband access technologies such as cable modems, the many flavors of DSL, and two-way satellite connectivity; the ongoing replacement of traditional circuit-switched network fabrics with packet-based transport and mesh architectures; a renewed focus on the SONET and SDH overhead with an eye toward using it more effectively; and the convergence of multiple applications on a single, capable, high-speed network fabric. Most visible among these is the hunger for bandwidth; according to consultancy RHK, global volume demand will grow from approximately 350,000 terabytes of transported data per month in April 2000 to more than 16 million terabytes of traffic per month in 2003. And who can argue
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Introduction: Nomenclature
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Before launching into a functional description of SDH, it would be helpful to first cover the differences in naming convention between the two. This will help to dispel confusion (hopefully!). The fundamental SONET unit of transport uses a 9-row by 90-column frame that comprises three columns of Section and Line Overhead, one
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column of Path Overhead, and 86 columns of payload. The payload, which is primarily user data, is carried in a payload envelope that can be formatted in various ways to make it carry a variety of payload types. For example, multiple SONET STS-1 frames can be combined to create higher-rate systems for transporting multiple STS-1 streams or a single higher-rate stream created from the combined bandwidth of the various multiplexed components. Conversely, SONET can transport sub-rate payloads, knownvirtual tributariesvirtual tributaries, which operate at rates slower than the fundamental STS-1 SONET rate. When this is done, the payload envelope is divided into virtual tributary groups, which can in turn transport a variety of virtual tributary types. In the SDH world, similar words apply, but they are different enough that they should be discussed. As you will see, SDH uses a fundamental transport container that is three times the size of its SONET counterpart. It is a nine-row by 270-column frame that can be configured into one of five container types, typically written C-n (where C means container). n can be 11, 12, 2, 3, or 4; they are designed to transport a variety of payload types, as shown in Figure 3-3. (The Japanese variants are also shown because they pop up periodically.) A C-11 is designed to transport a North American
Figure 3-3 Digital hierarchies.
North Europe 64 Kbps America 64 Kbps 1.544 Mbps 2.048 Mbps 6.312 Mbps 8.448 Mbps 32.064 Mbps 34.368 Mbps 44.736 Mbps 139.264 Mbps 95.728 Mbps DS-3 E-4 E-3 6.312 Mbps DS-2 E-2 Japan 64 Kbps 1.544 Mbps NADH DS-0 DS-1 E-1 EDH "E-0"
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