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CHAPTER 3 De ning Database Objects Using SQL
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Temporal data types are composed of the following components, called elds in the standard:
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Field Name (SQL Keyword) YEAR MONTH DAY HOUR MINUTE SECOND TIMEZONE_HOUR De nition Two-digit or four-digit calendar year Month within the year Day within the month Hour within the day Minute within the hour Second within the minute Hour value of time zone displacement. For example, Paci c Standard Time has a displacement of +8 hours from UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). Minute value of time zone displacement. While usually zero, there are some odd time zones around the world with half-hour offsets.
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TIMEZONE_MINUTE
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The TIMEZONE_HOUR and TIMEZONE_MINUTE elds are included in any temporal data type where the optional WITH TIMEZONE keyword is speci ed. The temporal data types are Date A date containing the YEAR, MONTH, and DAY elds. The SQL syntax is
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DATE [WITH TIMEZONE] Example: DATE_ENROLLED DATE
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Time A time containing the HOUR, MINUTE, and SECOND elds. The SQL syntax is
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TIME [WITH TIMEZONE] Example: TIME_ENROLLED TIME
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Timestamp A combined date and time containing the YEAR, MONTH, DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, and SECOND elds. The SQL syntax is
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TIMESTAMP [WITH TIMEZONE] Example: DATE_TIME_ENROLLED TIMESTAMP
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Interval An interval of time containing the elds speci ed with an interval quali er, which is essentially the precision of the interval. The SQL syntax is
INTERVAL start_field TO end_field | INTERVAL field Examples: MEMBERSHIP_DURATION INTERVAL YEAR TO DAY TIME_WORKED INTERVAL HOUR TO MINUTE RENTAL_DAYS INTERVAL DAY
SQL Demysti ed
Large Object Types
Large objects allow for storage of data that is considerably larger than the data supported by the data types covered thus far, often several megabytes in size. The handling of large objects is an advanced topic that is beyond the scope of this book, so they are listed here without any syntax details. For now, you only need to know that the DBMSs that support these types usually store the actual data separately from the table that references it, and that data can be moved in and out of the large object in pieces, such as a few kilobytes at a time. All large objects are variable in length by de nition. Consult your DBMS documentation for any special SQL syntax associated with large object types. Character large object A character large object, written in SQL as CLOB. National character large object A character large object that is stored in a particular national language, written in SQL as NCLOB. Binary large object A large object that holds binary data such as an image or sound clip, written in SQL as BLOB.
Another Data Type
There is one standard data type that does not fall into any of the previous categories: Boolean Stores a logical true or false. SQL syntax is
BOOLEAN
BOOLEAN Example: PREFERRED_CUSTOMER
Vendor Data Type Extensions and Differences
Vendor variances from and extensions to published standards are an unfortunate fact of life. This section highlights the main differences between popular vendor SQL implementations and the SQL:2003 standard. You will see enormous differences in the way standard data types are implemented and in vendor extensions to the standard. This section is not intended to be a comprehensive reference, so as always, you should consult the documentation provided with your particular implementation.
Microsoft Access
Microsoft Access is the least standards-compliant of today s popular databases. The data types supported by Microsoft Access are
CHAPTER 3 De ning Database Objects Using SQL
Text Equivalent to the VARCHAR standard data type, holding up to 255 characters. Memo Holds large character strings up to 65,535 characters, but de ned without a size. Number Equivalent to the NUMERIC standard data type, but the precision and scale are set using a Field Size pull-down menu. Integers can be de ned by setting the Decimal Places parameter to zero (0). Date/Time Roughly equivalent to the TIMESTAMP standard and capable of storing any valid date and time between the years 100 and 9999. Currency A numeric data type that is the equivalent of NUMERIC(19, 4), which is a number with 15 digits to the left of the decimal point and up to 4 digits to the right of the decimal point. AutoNumber A 4-byte or 16-byte eld (depending on the Field Size setting) that is automatically incremented by 1 whenever a new row is inserted into the table. Yes/No Roughly equivalent to the BOOLEAN standard data type. However, Microsoft Access permits this data type to be formatted as Yes/ No, On/Off, or True/False. OLE Object Similar to the BLOB standard data type, this type stores a Microsoft OLE object that can be up to 1GB (gigabyte) in size. Hyperlink A specialized data type that can hold an Internet web address. Lookup wizard A specialized data type that creates a link from a column in the current table to the contents of a column in another table. This data type is intended for dynamically linking tables when creating forms in Microsoft Access.
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