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As previously stated, you should always close the cursor when the program no longer needs it because this frees up any resources the cursor has used, including memory for buffers. The CLOSE statement is as simple as the OPEN statement:
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CLOSE overdue_rentals;
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In Transact-SQL (Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase), memory used by a cursor is not completely freed up when the cursor is closed, so it is also good programming practice to deallocate the cursor as shown in this example:
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DEALLOCATE overdue_rentals;
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Now that you have seen how applications handle database query result sets using cursors, you need to understand how the application connects to and interacts with the database. Most connections between an application and database use a standard API. An API (application programming interface) is a set of calling conventions by which an application program accesses services. Such services can be provided by the operating system or by other software products such as the DBMS. The API provides a level of abstraction that allows the application to be portable across various operating systems and vendors.
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ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) is a standard API for connecting application programs to DBMSs. ODBC is based on a Call Level Interface (CLI, a convention that de nes the way calls to services are made), which was rst de ned by the SQL Access Group and released in September 1992. Although Microsoft was the rst company to release a commercial product based on ODBC, it is not a Microsoft standard, and in fact there are now versions available for Unix, Macintosh, and other platforms. ODBC is independent of any particular language, operating system, or database system. An application written to the ODBC API can be ported to another database or operating system merely by changing the ODBC driver. It is the ODBC driver that binds the API to the particular database and platform, and a de nition known as the ODBC data source contains the information necessary for a particular application to connect with a database service. On Windows systems, the most popular ODBC drivers are shipped with the operating system, as is a utility program to de ne ODBC data sources (found on the Control Panel or Administrative Tools Panel, depending on the version of Windows). Most commercial software products and most commercial databases support ODBC, which makes it far easier for software vendors to market and support products across a wide variety of database systems. One notable exception is applications
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written in Java. They use a different API known as JDBC, which is covered in the next section. A common dilemma is that relational database vendors do not handle advanced functions in the same way. This problem can be circumvented using an escape clause that tells the ODBC driver to pass the proprietary SQL statements through the ODBC API untouched. The downside of this approach, of course, is that applications written this way are not portable to a different vendor s database (and sometimes not even to a different version of the same vendor s database).
Connecting Databases to Java Applications
Java started as a proprietary programming language (originally named Oak) that was developed by Sun Microsystems. It rapidly became the de facto standard programming language for web computing, at least in non-Microsoft environments. Java is a type-safe, object-oriented programming language that can be used to build client components (applets) as well as server components (servlets). It has a machineindependent architecture, making it highly portable across hardware and operating system platforms. You may also run across the terms JavaScript and JScript. These are scripting languages with a Java-like syntax that are intended to perform simple functions on client systems, such as editing dates. They are not full- edged implementations of Java and are not designed to handle database interactions.
JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)
JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is an API, modeled after ODBC, for connecting Java applications to a wide variety of relational DBMS products. Some JDBC drivers translate the JDBC API to corresponding ODBC calls and thus connect to the database via an ODBC data source. Other drivers translate directly to the proprietary client API of the particular relational database, such as the Oracle Call Interface (OCI). As with ODBC, an escape clause is available for passing proprietary SQL statements through the interface. The JDBC API offers the following features: Embedded SQL for Java The Java programmer codes SQL statements as string variables, the strings are passed to Java methods, and an embedded SQL processor translates the Java SQL to JDBC calls. Direct mapping of RDBMS tables to Java classes The results of SQL calls are automatically mapped to variables in Java classes. The Java programmer may then operate on the returned data as native Java objects.
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