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PART III
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ORDER_FACTS day_key product_key salesrep_key company_key . . . order_dollars . . .
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COMPANY_ HIERARCHY_ BRIDGE superior_company_key subordinate_company_key levels_removed
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COMPANY company_key company_id company_name company_type . . . = Company 6 Role: Subordinate
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COMPANY_HIERARCHY_BRIDGE 1 superior_ subordinate_ levels_ company_ company_ removed key key 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 8 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 7 8 0 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 0 0
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Figure 10-8 Orders booked with Company 6 and its superiors
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trouble but will prevent them from being able to leverage the hierarchies in their reports. When this is necessary, a skilled developer should be entrusted with the job.
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Avoiding Double-Counting
The possibility of counting a fact more than once is a real and present danger when a hierarchy bridge table is in use. In the case of looking down, this danger is avoided by
10 Recursive Hierarchies and Bridges 237
selecting a single upper-level member of the hierarchy, or by grouping results by upperlevel members. In the case of looking down, it is avoided by selecting a lower-level member or by grouping results by lower-level members. Double-counting can also be avoided by using the bridge in a subquery instead of joining it to the fact table. To understand this danger and the solution, consider the content of the fact table. Suppose, for example, that Company 8 placed an order. The fact table will contain a row for this transaction, with the appropriate company_key for Company 8. If you look back at Figure 10-7, you will see that Company 8 is subordinate to several companies. To be specific, it lies beneath Companies 6, 5, and 1. There is also a row that links Company 8 to itself. That means that if we are not careful, Company 8 s order may be counted as many as four times. When the looking down configuration in Figure 10-7 was used to query the facts, a constraint was placed on the company table. This limited the results to those companies that could be found in the bridge that have Company 5 as a superior. As a result, Company 8 was counted only once. You can see this in the shaded area of the table. Although Company 8 is also linked to Companies 1, 6, and 8, these possibilities were eliminated when the query constrained on Company 5. It is also possible to avoid trouble without establishing a filter if you take care to group results by a top-level member. Such reports are similar to the impact reports of the previous chapter. Facts may be counted in the groupings returned for each of the companies above them. For example, any orders by Company 8 will be included in totals for Companies 1, 5, 6, and 8. As long as these group totals are not subsequently added up to construct a grand total, the report is valid. Filtering for a specific member of the hierarchy or grouping by specific members are the only options to avoid trouble. Using any attribute of the dimension may cause a severe miscalculation of the facts. For example, assume that the companies in Figure 10-7 are all in the finance industry. If the company constraint in Figure 10-7 is replaced by company_ type="Finance", a severe miscalculation will take place. Company 8, for example, appears under three companies in the finance industry (1, 5, and 6), so its orders will be counted more than once. It is only possible to avoid this by filtering for a specific company. Use of the natural key is the best route, since it is possible for company names or other attributes to be duplicated. Note that the slow change guidelines provided later in this chapter must be followed. TIP When looking down a hierarchy, it is important to select a top-level member in order to avoid doublecounting. When looking up a hierarchy, it is important to select a bottom-level member. Doublecounting can also be avoided by grouping by a top- or bottom-level member. In the query, identification of the member should involve use of a natural key. When looking up a hierarchy, a similar set of precautions prevents double-counting. In this case, it is necessary to establish a lower-level member from which the query looks upward. In Figure 10-8, this was achieved by filtering on the lower-level member Company 6. Instead of filtering for a single lower-level member, double-counting can also be avoided by grouping results by lower-level members. In this case, it is important to remember not to construct a grand total. Company 1 s transactions, for example, will appear above Company 6 s as well as above Company 5 s.
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