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DMIF synchronously; so multiple devices can, in principal, tune in to the same set of streams and play individual elements (AVOs) in synchronism with each other. In other words, in a home media gateway, DMIF provides a local simulcasting capability. Control of the DMIF spans the FlexMux and TransMux and manages the quality of service requested by the application. The DMIF is a very clever piece of the MPEG-4 standard. The MPEG-4 standard provides for both client-side and server-side interaction with the presented content. Client-side interaction involves content manipulation rendered by the client machine. AVOs can be moved, made invisible, changed in size, rotated, etc. Server-side interaction, like starting and pausing a stream for example, requires a back channel. Figure 2.20 shows the architecture of a typical MPEG-4 terminal (or player). The MPEG-4 specification specifies a file format known as .MP4, which can be used for the exchange of content and is easily converted. MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 did not include such a specification, but the intended use of the MPEG-4 standard on the Internet and with personal computers made it a necessity. The .MP4 file format bears many similarities to Apple s QuickTime .MOV format. We have already touched on some of the novel uses of MPEG-4, such as text-to-speech voice synthesis for a mesh-warped facial model, which creates an avatar. Mesh warping can also be used to represent simple video objects. For example, the texture of a flag could be mapped onto a mesh and the mesh manipulated to simulate waving in the breeze. Structured music synthesis allows for a variety of well-established music synthesis techniques, so that whole orchestras can be simulated. Text and graphics can be linked to the playback of a video, allowing synchronization of the media elements. A user can be walking through a three-dimensional representation of a house and the acoustics of each room can adjust according to the size of the room, so that sounds become more or less reverberant. As you walk around the house model, the virtual real estate agent s voice may appear louder in one ear than the other as he passes you in the corridor. Music tracks can be remixed, to bring up the drums and bass, if that is what is required. If the dialog is hard to hear among all the sound effects, the dialog can be equalized and compressed to make it sound louder and more intelligible. All of these end-user modifications are supported by the MPEG-4 standard, though implementations of the full standard are exceedingly rare today. There are, however, some commercial end-to-end MPEG-4 solutions available. For example, Envivio has a range of products including a
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Figure 2.20 MPEG-4 terminal architecture.
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Upstream Information
Elementary Streams Elementary Stream Interface
Synchronization (or Access) Layer
Packetized Streams DMIF Application Interface
Delivery Layer
Multiplexed Streams
Transmission/Storage Medium
streaming server, a live encoder, and broadcaster and a multi-user content-authoring system. Envivio also produces software to add MPEG-4 capabilities to set-top boxes. The Sarnoff Corporation spin-off e-Vue has also announced an end-to-end MPEG-4 streaming solution, including content-creation tools, a content-delivery platform, and an MPEG-4 player. Another company with a solution is iVast, which produces content
creation tools, an MPEG-4 server, and an MPEG-4 player. iVast also provides an SDK for its content creation tools. Philips also has its WebCine platform, which includes an encoder application, an MEPG-4 server, and WebCine Player software. MPEG-4 compliance seems to be a term that might be open to common abuse, since manufacturers tend not to specify whether they comply with all of the video and audio profiles, whether they provide all the AVO manipulation capabilities, if there are any limitations to the scene description implementation, etc. In many cases, compliance claims may be based on nothing more than implementation of a particular subset of compression profiles and support for the .MP4 file format. Caveat emptor. What the MPEG-4 standard did not do was specify a way for uniquely naming and describing all the AVOs and MPEG-4 composite presentations that are going to proliferate. That task was left to the MPEG-7 standard. MPEG-7 is a standardized description of various types of multimedia information. This description is associated with the content itself, to allow fast and efficient searching for material of interest to the user. The searcher, for example, could input a sketch as a wildcard image or specify a generic shape, generate a verbal description (e.g., a sunset over a lake, or two men fighting ). Music could be found in a query by humming format. MPEG-7 is formally called Multimedia Content Description Interface. Descriptions of multimedia are often referred to as metadata. The standard does not comprise the automatic or manual extraction of descriptions and features or AVOs. It also does not specify the search engine or any other program that can make use of an MPEG-7 description. In fact, MPEG-7 can be used to catalog and search for any multimedia objects, including broadcast video tape, archived film, 3D models, audio recordings, still photographs, etc. MPEG-7 aims to standardize a core set of descriptors that can be used to describe the various features of multimedia content, predefined structures of descriptors and their relationships (called description schemes), and a language to define Description schemes and descriptors (called the Description Definition Language or DDL). Figure 2.21 is an overview of the MPEG-7 multimedia description schemes. Yet another book could be written about the MPEG-7 standard, so once again we shall have to content ourselves with a sampling of the full menu. MPEG-7 provides for a hierarchy of classification, allowing different granularity in its descriptions. Because the descriptive features must be meaningful in the context of the application, they will be different for different user domains and different applications. Consider the example of visual material: a lower level of abstraction might be shape, size,
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