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groups. To send an IP multicast datagram on a group, the sender specifies the appropriate temporary group address and sends the datagram using the same Send IP operation used with unicast datagrams. Compared to sending a multicast datagram, receiving one is much more complex, particularly over a WAN. To receive the datagrams, a host application (e.g., a streaming media player) requests membership in a multicast host group (e.g., today s one o clock live press conference with the President). This membership request is communicated to the LAN router and, if needed, to all other intermediate routers between the sender and receiver. The receiver s network interface hardware now starts to filter for the data packets tagged with the right addresses, corresponding to the host group s IP address. As the network interface hardware detects packets of interest, it passes them to the TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes them available to the user s application, such as a streaming media viewer. Each multicast packet uses the Time To Live (TTL) field of the IP header to limit propagation of individual packets. Every time a router touches a packet, it decreases the TTL value. Hence, the TTL value counts router hops. Any packet that has a TTL value of zero is dropped, without an error being signaled to the sender. If the router encounters a packet with a TTL of 1, it knows to confine multicast transmission to the local area network only. For values greater than 1, the packet is forwarded to other multicast routers, which will multicast the data on their subnets (provided they are reachable within the TTL), if there are any members of that host group attached. Several standards for TTL are specified for the MBone, for example. On the MBone, 1 confines multicasting to the local area, 15 to the site, 63 to the region, and 127 to the entire world. Most routers block multicast traffic by default. IP tunneling is an interim mechanism used to connect islands of multicast routers separated by vanilla unicast routers. In IP tunneling, multicast messages are wrapped in point-to-point unicast datagrams and sent. This was how the MBone achieved multicast operation globally. For multicast-enabled routers, multicast packets from remote sources must be relayed, only being forwarded to the local network if there is a recipient for the multicast host group on the LAN. IGMP is used by multicast routers to learn of the existence of host group members on their directly attached subnets. It does so by sending IGMP queries and having IP hosts report their host group memberships. In other words, the router asks each media player, for example, Which multicast groups are you listening to Each one responds with the list of channels being
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received. IGMP is carried by IP transport and there are only two kinds of packets: Host Membership Query and Host Membership Report. To determine if any receivers on a local subnet belong to a multicast group, one multicast router per subnet periodically sends a hardwaregenerated multicast IGMP Host Membership Query to all IP end nodes on its LAN, asking them to report back on the host group memberships of their processes. This query is sent to the reserved All Hosts Group whose address is A TTL of 1 is used to prevent propagation of the request to hosts outside the confines of the LAN. Every host that sends a report back also sends it on the all hosts group, so all group members see it. Thus, only one member need report membership for the router to continue sending multicast traffic to receivers. When a media player, for example, wants to tune in to a particular multicast channel, it asks to join a host group. The hardware driver on the network interface card creates a multicast address mask for its packet-sniffing filter and an IGMP Host Membership Report, which is sent immediately. When the last host member of a group leaves the group, the router only finds out about it because it gets no reply to its Host Membership Queries. Thus, routers poll for host memberships and hosts that are members send their reports at random time intervals, if they have not seen a report by another member of the group. The random interval prevents multiple hosts from reporting all at once, which would cause network collisions. Routers use IGMP updates to communicate host memberships to their neighboring routers. Thus group membership information is propagated throughout the entire Internet (eventually). How does a multicast packet find a route from source to destination(s) With unicast, the IP protocol contains the single IP address of the recipient, which includes information about its physical network location, including the subnet number and host number on that subnet. Routers periodically send information about the connected devices they can see on their particular subnet to other routers, so that data can be forwarded correctly according to the entries in each router s routing tables. Things are not so simple with multicast. A multicast address specifies a particular transmission session, rather than a specific physical destination. A na ve approach to routing multicast packets would be to send a separate copy of the data to each receiving subnet (as notified to the router by IGMP messages). However, this would be grossly inefficient, since many of the data streams would follow the same path throughout much of the network. Instead, the multicast router must know how to translate multicast addresses into host addresses. In
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