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Gain versus frequency
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Another important specification for a transistor is the range of frequencies over which it can be used as an amplifier. All transistors have an amplification factor, or gain, that decreases as the signal frequency increases. Some devices will work well only up to a few megahertz; others can be used to several gigahertz. Gain can be expressed in various different ways. In the above discussion, you learned a little about current gain, expressed as a ratio. You will also sometimes hear about voltage gain or power gain in amplifier circuits. These, too, can be expressed as ratios. For example, if the voltage gain of a circuit is 15, then the output signal voltage (rms, peak, or peak-to-peak) is 15 times the input signal voltage. If the power gain of a circuit is 25, then the output signal power is 25 times the input signal power. There are two expressions commonly used for the gain-versus-frequency behavior of a bipolar transistor. The gain bandwidth product, abbreviated fT, is the frequency at which the gain becomes equal to 1 with the emitter connected to ground. If you try to
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408 The bipolar transistor make an amplifier using a transistor at a frequency higher than its fT, you ll fail! Thus fT represents an absolute upper limit of sorts. The alpha cutoff frequency of a transitor is the frequency at which the gain becomes 0.707 times its value at 1 kHz. A transistor might still have considerable gain at its alpha cutoff. By looking at the alpha cutoff frequency, you can get an idea of how rapidly the transistor loses gain as the frequency goes up. Some devices die-off faster than others. Figure 22-8 shows the gain band width product and alpha cutoff frequency for a hypothetical transistor, on a graph of gain versus frequency. Note that the scales of this graph are nonlinear; they re scrunched up at the higher values. This type of graph is useful for showing some functions. It is called a log-log graph because both scales are logarithmic rather than linear.
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22-8 Alpha cutoff and gain bandwidth product for a hypothetical transistor.
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Common emitter circuit
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A transistor can be hooked up in three general ways. The emitter can be grounded for signal, the base can be grounded for signal, or the collector can be grounded for signal. Probably the most often-used arrangement is the common-emitter circuit. Common means grounded for the signal. The basic configuration is shown in Fig. 22-9. A terminal can be at ground potential for the signal, and yet have a significant dc voltage. In the circuit shown, C1 looks like a dead short to the ac signal, so the emitter is at signal ground. But R1 causes the emitter to have a certain positive dc voltage with respect to ground (or a negative voltage, if a PNP transistor is used). The exact dc voltage at the emitter depends on the value of R1, and on the bias.
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22-9 Common-emitter circuit configuration.
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The bias is set by the ratio of resistances R2 and R3. It can be anything from zero, or ground potential, to + 12 V, the supply voltage. Normally it will be a couple of volts. Capacitors C2 and C3 block dc to or from the input and output circuitry (whatever that might be) while letting the ac signal pass. Resistor R4 keeps the output signal from being shorted out through the power supply. A signal voltage enters the common-emitter circuit through C2, where it causes the base current, IB to vary. The small fluctuations in IB cause large changes in the collector current, IC. This current passes through R4, causing a fluctuating dc voltage to appear across this resistor. The ac part of this passes unhindered through C3 to the output. The circuit of Fig. 22-9 is the basis for many amplifiers, from audio frequencies through ultra-high radio frequencies. The common-emitter configuration produces the largest gain of any arrangement. The output is 180 degrees out of phase with the input.
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