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Plug in values to the formula for the efficiency of an FET amplifier expressed as a percentage. The resulting equation is solved as follows: 60 = 100 3.5/PD 60 = 350/PD 60/350 = 1/PD PD = 350/60 = 5.8 W
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Efficiency versus Class Class A amplifiers have efficiency figures from 25 percent to 40 percent, depending on the nature of the input signal and the type of transistor used. A good class AB1 amplifier is 35 percent to 45 percent efficient. A class AB2 amplifier, if well designed and properly operated, can be up to about 50 percent efficient. Class B amplifiers are typically 50 percent to 65 percent efficient. Class C amplifiers can have efficiency levels as high as 75 percent.
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Class A and AB1 power amplifiers do not, in theory, take any power from the signal source to produce significant output power. This is one of the advantages of these classes of operation. It is only necessary that a certain voltage be present at the control electrode (the base, gate, emitter, or source) for these circuits to produce useful output signal power. Class AB2 amplifiers need some driving power to produce ac power output. Class B amplifiers require more drive than class AB2, and class C amplifiers need still more drive. Whatever kind of PA is used in a given situation, it is important that the driving signal not be too strong. If overdrive takes place, distortion occurs in the output signal. An oscilloscope can be used to determine whether or not an amplifier is being overdriven. The scope is connected to the amplifier output terminals, and the waveform of the output signal is examined. The output waveform for a particular class of amplifier always has a characteristic shape. Overdrive is indicated by a form of distortion known as flat topping. In Fig. 24-6A, the output signal waveshape for a properly operating class B amplifier is shown. In Fig. 24-6B, the output of an overdriven class B amplifier is shown. Note that the peaks are blunted or truncated. The result of this can be distortion in the modulation on a radio signal, and 24-6 At A, an oscilloscope
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display of the signal output waveform from a properly operating class B power amplifier. At B, a display showing distortion in the waveform caused by overdrive.
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Audio Amplification 389
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also an excessive amount of signal output at harmonic frequencies. The efficiency of the circuit can be degraded, as well. The flat tops of the distorted waves don t contribute anything to the strength of the signal at the desired frequency, but they cause a higher-than-normal dc power input, which translates into a lower-than-normal efficiency.
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The circuits you ve seen so far have been general, not application-specific. With capacitors of several microfarads, and when biased for class A, these circuits are representative of audio amplifiers.
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Frequency Response High-fidelity audio amplifiers, of the kind used in music systems, must have more or less constant gain from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. This is a frequency range of 1000:1. Audio amplifiers for voice communications must work from 300 Hz to 3 kHz, a 10:1 span of frequencies. In digital communications, audio amplifiers are designed to work over a narrow range of frequencies, sometimes less than 100 Hz wide. Hi-fi amplifiers are usually equipped with resistor-capacitor (RC) networks that tailor the frequency response. These are tone controls, also called bass and treble controls. The simplest hi-fi amplifiers use a single knob to control the tone. More sophisticated amplifiers have separate controls, one for bass and the other for treble. The most advanced hi-fi systems make use of graphic equalizers, having controls that affect the amplifier gain over several different frequency spans. Volume Control Audio amplifier systems usually consist of two or more stages. A stage is one bipolar transistor or FET (or a push-pull combination), plus peripheral resistors and capacitors. Stages can be cascaded one after the other to get high gain. In one of the stages in an audio system, a volume control is used. This control can be as simple as a potentiometer that allows the gain of a stage to be adjusted without affecting its linearity. An example of a basic volume control is shown in Fig. 24-7. In this amplifier, the gain through the transistor is constant. The ac output signal passes through C1 and appears across R1, a potentiometer. The wiper (indicated by the arrow) of the potentiometer picks off more or less of the ac output signal, depending on the position of the control shaft. Capacitor C2 isolates the potentiometer from the dc bias of the following stage. A volume control should normally be placed in a stage where the audio power level is low. This allows the use of a low-wattage, low-cost potentiometer. Transformer Coupling Transformers can be used to transfer (or couple) signals from one stage to the next in a cascaded amplifier system (also known as an amplifier chain). An example of transformer coupling is shown in Fig. 24-8. Capacitors C1 and C2 keep one end of the transformer primary and secondary at signal ground. Resistor R1 limits the current through the first transistor, Q1. Resistors R2 and R3 provide the proper base bias for transistor Q2. The main disadvantage of this scheme is that it costs more than capacitive coupling. But transformer coupling can provide an optimum signal transfer between amplifier stages. By selecting a transformer with the correct turns ratio, the output impedance of Q1 can be perfectly matched to the input impedance of Q2.
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