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Figure 3-50 E-1 framing.
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Canadian originating carrier must convert the call to E-1 before transmitting it to Australia.
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Up the Food Chain: From T-1 to DS3 . . . and beyond
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When T-1 and E-1 first emerged on the telecommunications scene, they represented a dramatic step forward in terms of the bandwidth that service providers now had access to. In fact, T-1 and E-1 were so bandwidthrich that a customer would never need to exploit their full capabilities. What customer, after all, could ever have a use for 1 million-and-a-half bits per second of bandwidth Of course, that question was rendered moot in short order as increasing requirements for bandwidth drove demand that went well beyond the limited capabilities of low-speed transmission systems. As T-1 became mainstream, its usage went up, and soon requirements emerged for digital transmission systems with capacities greater than 1.544 Mbps. The result was the creation of what came to be known as the North American Digital Hierarchy, shown in Figure 3-51. The table also shows the European and Japanese hierarchy levels.
From DS-1 to DS-3
We have already seen the process for creating the DS-1 signal from 24 incoming DS-0 channels and an added frame bit. Now we turn our attention to higher bit-rate services. As we wander our way through this
Hierarchy Level
Europe 64 Kbps 2.048 Mbps
United States 64 Kbps 1.544 Mbps 3.152 Mbps 6.312 Mbps
Japan 64 Kbps 1.544 Mbps 3.152 Mbps 6.312 Mbps 32.064 Mbps
Figure 3-51 North American Digital Hierarchy.
DS-0 DS-1 E-1 DS-1c DS-2 E-2 DS-3 DS-3c E-3 DS-4
8.448 Mbps 34.368 Mbps 44.736 Mbps 91.053 Mbps 139.264 Mbps 274.176 Mbps
397.2 Mbps
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3
explanation, pay particular attention to the complexity involved in creating higher rate payloads. The next level in the North American Digital Hierarchy is called DS-2. Although it is rarely seen outside of the safety of the multiplexer in which it resides, it plays an important role in the creation of higher bitrate services. It is created when a multiplexer bit-interleaves four DS-1 signals and inserts a control bit, known as a C-bit, into every 48 bits in the payload stream. Bit interleaving is an important construct here, because it contributes to the complexity of the overall payload. In a bit-interleaved system, multiple bit streams are combined on a bit-by-bit basis, as shown in Figure 3-52. When payload components are bit-interleaved to create a higher-rate multiplexed signal, the system first selects bit 1 from channel 1, bit 1 from channel 2, bit 1 from channel 3, and so on. Once it has selected and transmitted all of the first bits, it goes on to the second bits from each channel, then the third, until it has created the super-rate frame. Along the way it intersperses C-bits, which are used to perform certain control and management functions within the frame. Once the 6.312-Mbps DS-2 signal has been created, the system shifts into high gear to create the next level in the transmission hierarchy. Seven DS-2 signals are then bit-interleaved along with C-bits after every 84 payload bits to create a composite 44.736-Mbps DS-3 signal. The first part of this process, the creation of the DS-2 payload, is called M12 multiplexing. The second step, which combines DS-2s to form a DS-3, is called M23 multiplexing. The overall process is called M13 and is illustrated in Figure 3-53. The problem with this process is the bit-interleaved nature of the multiplexing scheme. Because the DS-1 signal components arrive from different sources, they may be (and usually are) slightly off from one another in terms of the overall phase of the signal; in effect, their speeds
Bit 1, frame 4
Figure 3-52 Bit-interleaved system.
Bit 1, frame 2
Bit 1, frame 1 Bit 1, frame 3
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