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Transport Layer Protocols
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We turn our attention now to layer four, the transport layer. Two key protocols are found at this layer: the TCP and the User Datagram Protocol
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Transport Technologies
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Transport Technologies
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(UDP). TCP is an ironclad, absolutely guaranteed service delivery protocol, with all of the attendant protocol overhead you would expect from such a capable protocol. UDP, on the other hand, is a more lightweight protocol, used for delay-sensitive applications like VoIP. Its overhead component is relatively light. In TCP and UDP messages, higher layer applications are identified by port identifiers. The port identifier and IP address together form a socket, and the end-to-end communication between two or more systems is identified by a four-part complex address: the source port, the source address, the destination port, and the destination address. Commonly used port numbers are shown in Table 7-2.
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Table 7-2
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Commonly Used Port Numbers
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Port # 7 9 19 20 21 23 25 37 43 53 67 68 69 79 Protocol TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP UDP TCP TCP/UDP UDP UDP UDP TCP Service echo discard chargen ftp-control ftp-data telnet smtp time whois dns bootps bootpc tftp finger Port # 80 110 119 123 137 138 139 143 161 162 179 443 520 33434 Protocol TCP TCP TCP UDP UDP UDP TCP TCP UDP UDP TCP TCP UDP UDP Service http pop3 nntp ntp netbios-ns netbios-dgm netbios-ssn imap snmp snmp-trap bgp https rip traceroute
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Transport Technologies
7
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
TCP provides a connection-oriented communication service across the network. It stipulates rule sets for message formats, establishing virtual circuit establishment and termination, data sequencing, flow control, and error correction. Most applications designed to operate within the TCP/IP protocol suite use TCP s reliable, guaranteed delivery services. In TCP, the transmitted data entity is referred to as a segment because TCP does not operate in message mode: It simply transmits blocks of data from a sender and receiver. The fields that make up the segment, shown in Figure 7-39, are described in this section. The source port and the destination port identify the originating and terminating connection points of the end-to-end connection as well as the higher-layer application. The sequence number identifies this particular segment s first byte in the byte stream, and since the sequence number refers to a byte count rather than to a segment, the sequence numbers in sequential TCP segments are not, ironically, numbered sequentially.
Figure 7-39 The TCP header
Source Port
Destination Port
Sequence Number
Acknowledgment Number
Header Reserved Length
TCP Flags
Window Size
TCP Checksum
Urgent Pointer
TCP Options
Data
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Transport Technologies
Transport Technologies
The acknowledgment number is used by the sender to acknowledge to the transmitter that it has received the transmitted data. In practice, the field identifies the sequence number of the next byte that it expects from the receiver. The Data Offset field identifies the first byte in this particular segment; in effect it indicates the segment header length. TCP relies on a collection of control flags, which, in fact, do control certain characteristics of the virtual connection. They include an Urgent Pointer Field Significant (URG) which indicates that the current segment contains high-priority data and that the Urgent Pointer field value is valid; an Acknowledgment Field Significant (ACK), which indicates that the value contained in the Acknowledgment Number field is valid; a Push Function (PSH) Flag, which is used by the transmitting application to force TCP to transmit data immediately that it currently has buffered, without waiting for the buffer to fill; a Reset Connection (RST) flag, which is used to immediately terminate an end-to-end TCP connection; a Synchronize Sequence Numbers (SYN) flag, which is used to establish a connection, and to indicate that the segments carry the proper initial sequence number; and finally, a Finish (FIN) flag, which is set to request a normal termination of a TCP connection in whatever direction the segment is traveling. The Window field is used for flow control management. It contains the value of the permitted receive window size, the number of transmitted bytes that the sender of the segment is willing to accept from the receiver. The Checksum field offers bit-level error detection for the entire segment, including both the header and the transmitted data. The Urgent Pointer field is used for the management of high-priority traffic as identified by a higher layer application. If so marked, the segment is typically allowed to bypass normal TCP buffering. The last field is the Options field. At the time of the initial connection establishment this field is used to negotiate such functions as maximum segment size and selective acknowledgement (SACK).
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP provides connectionless service. And while connectionless often implies unreliable, that is a bit of a misnomer. For applications that require nothing more than a simple query and response, UDP is ideal
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